Separation of Concerns with Git
When developing a web app or site that has a public-facing repo, there may be a need to have some rudimentary separation of concerns where git is concerned. Certain files that we may want on the production server might seem out of place on the public repo due to licensing, privacy or security concerns.
This method presumes that there are three repos: production, public and local/development. We will be attempting to prevent some sensitive files from being pushed to the public repo, while allowing them to be sent off to production.
To solve this problem, we first add dummies of the sensitive files to the development repo. These dummy files can be empty files, as long as they have the same names as the actual sensitive files we will eventually add.
We will commit the dummy files, then replace them with the actual sensitive files. Now we tell git to assume that the files we have just added have not changed.
This initial setup can be broken down into the following steps:
Create and commit the dummy file(s).
$ touch /path/to/sensitive_file $ git commit -am "Add dummy file"
Replace the dummy file(s) with the real one(s).
$ rm -rf /path/to/sensitive_file $ mv /path/to/actual/sensitive_file /path/to/sensitive_file
Tell git to act like nothing happened.
$ git update-index --assume-unchanged /path/to/sensitive_file
/path/to/actual/sensitive_file must be in the .gitignore or outside of the git project. Otherwise, it beats the point of this whole process.
From now on, git should skip over the sensitive files whenever it is checking for diffs. Thus, we can push normally to the public repo where the dummy files reside, while the actual sensitive files remain in our development repo.
To push the sensitive files to the production repo, we will take the following steps:
- Tell git to no longer assume the files are unchanged.
- Commit the sensitive files, and push them to production.
- Tell git, within the scope of our development repo, to go back one commit. Essentially, we undo the previous commit, but only locally.
- Remind git to assume the sensitive files have not changed.
These 4 steps can be packaged into a script, which we will run whenever we want to push some changes to production.
An example script is presented below, with the following assumptions:
- We have some licensed web fonts that we shouldn't distribute on our public repo.
- We want the font files to reside on the same server as our web app/site rather than on a dedicated font server.
- Our production sever is hosted on Heroku.
# Array with paths to font files FONT_LIST="assets/fonts/title-font.woff assets/fonts/title-font.woff2 assets/fonts/body-font.woff assets/fonts/body-font.woff2" # STEP 1 for FONT in FONT_LIST do git update-index --no-assume-unchanged $FONT done # STEP 2 git commit -am "Push font files to server" git push -f heroku main # STEP 3 git reset HEAD~1 # STEP 3 & 4 for FONT in FONT_LIST do git reset HEAD $FONT # STEP 3 continued git update-index --assume-unchanged $FONT # STEP 4 done
The are some minor downsides to using this method:
- The git logs on our production server will always show the "Push font files to server" as the most recent commit. In other words, production will be one commit ahead of the development.
- As a result, we must run this script anytime we want to push changes to production.
- The script will include unstaged changes in the commit that it generates. It is advisable to make sure that there are no pending changes in the main branch before running the script.
However, I would argue that these are inconsequential inconveniences.
To reiterate, we will now use a different command to push to production. Here's the old command for reference:
$ git push heroku main
And here's the new one (assuming we save the script to the root of our project and name it "deploy"):
$ sh deploy
The method described in this post was used on this very site to keep the web font files out of the public GitHub repository. As of 14th March 2017, the font files are now hosted on a CDN. This blog post describes how to set up Azure CDN.